The civil war in Syria, which escalated in 2011, triggered an increasing influx of refugees into neighbouring countries as early as 2012. Refugee camps (Egypt and Iraq) or informal (tent) settlements (Lebanon) were set up in the border regions, and some refugees settled in existing communities. Iraq witnessed a second wave of refugees that were displaced by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria. The influx put pressure on the already scarce resources and social infrastructure in the host countries. Financial resources were therefore channeled from BMZ via FC to UNICEF and WFP. In the case of UNICEF, basic education, sustainable water supply and sanitation, child aid measures, support and basic health care were financed in Iraq and Lebanon. In the case of the WFP, access to food and winter blankets was financed in Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon.