Human health depends heavily on a healthy environment. It is therefore not surprising that climate change in particular poses a major health risk. In addition to the spread of infectious diseases, which are often the focus in connection with climate change, this also contributes significantly to the increase in non?communicable diseases. In the following, the concrete correlations are shown and solutions are presented.
Climate change and the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)(PDF, 48 KB, accessible)
At least summer 2022 is making climate change tangible even in Germany: Long periods of heat combined with extreme drought, as well as an increase in extreme weather events, have become the norm instead of the exception. For older people in particular, this is increasingly turning into a health hazard, whereas in many countries of the Global South, the negative effects of climate change - also on health - have long been a reality.
The African Climate Week is currently taking place. At the invitation of the United Nations and the government of Gabon, experts are discussing how to counter the climate crisis. On the occasion of this event, the current issue of Development in Brief explains how climate change affects human health and what role the health sector can play in meeting this challenge.
Climate Change - Major challenges ahead for healthcare systems(PDF, 69 KB, accessible)
Fragility is a widespread phenomenon. In seven out of the nine countries where fragility is currently considered particularly alarming, women give birth to more than four children on average. If you compare colour-coded world maps for fragility and fertility (number of children per female), the similarity of the geographical distribution is immediately striking. In fact, the “demographic pressure” factor is one of the twelve criteria that are taken into account when compiling the Fragile States Index.
How exactly do crises and the number of children relate to one another and what needs to happen in order to break the downward spiral of fragility and population growth?
These are some of the questions addressed in the current issue of Development in Brief.
What is the relationship between population growth and fragility?(PDF, 143 KB, accessible)
Awareness of the importance of functioning healthcare systems for social and economic development existed even before the coronavirus crisis. However, the pandemic has now shifted the focus sharply to how important it is to expand and strengthen these systems quickly. But how can this be financed? Can (soft) loans play a role here?
The current issue of Development in Brief explores this question and discusses the arguments of opponents and proponents when it comes to how the global financing gap in the health sector could be closed through loans.
Global financial gap in the healthcare sector: should (soft) loans be part of the solution?(PDF, 125 KB, non-accessible)
Many developing countries are still lagging behind in implementing the SDGs. In particular, they have difficulties providing their populations with basic public services, such as education or rudimentary health services.
This issue of “Development in Brief” presents the “total market approach”, which could help states to better provide basic services by getting the private and public sectors to work closely together and share tasks. The approach is not without controversy, but it has already been applied very successfully in some sectors.
Total market approach – better provision of basic services through intelligent market segmentation between private and public sectors (PDF, 75 KB, non-accessible)
Although knowledge of coronavirus transmission routes is still patchy, it is nonetheless clear that poverty facilitates its spread in a number of ways. The chains of effects work in both directions here, as the coronavirus pandemic simultaneously fosters poverty. This poses a major challenge for developing countries with less capacity and fewer financial resources to remain capable of acting and of stopping poverty rates from worsening.
The current edition of Development in Brief looks at the various chains of effects and suggests possible actions to take.
Poverty facilitates coronavirus and coronavirus fosters poverty: chains of effects and possible actions(PDF, 111 KB, non-accessible)
Thanks to increasing global digitalisation and simultaneously decreasing costs, technology is now more accessible to a wider range of people than ever before – including those in the southern hemisphere. Modern information and communications technology (ICT) offers a major opportunity to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages (SDG 3).
Digital innovation: a catalyst for improving health care in the southern hemisphere(PDF, 180 KB, non-accessible)
The question as to whether and to what extent the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can be achieved depends on various factors: the extent of available funds, behavioural changes, implementation capacities, political will and much more. However, the most critical factor in the long term is often ignored in the public discussion: population dynamics.
Population dynamics – crucial questions for achieving the SDGs(PDF, 485 KB, non-accessible)
According to WHO forecasts, more people in developing countries will die from diabetes or heart attacks than from infectious diseases by 2030. The global increase in chronic or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represents an enormous strain on and challenge for many countries whose healthcare systems are primarily focused on controlling infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Particularly in low-income regions, the costs of NCDs are becoming a major financial challenge for the people affected and for the national economies.
This issue of Development in Brief deals with non-communicable diseases and their growing significance in developing countries. The article points out the health and economic consequences of these diseases and what measures need to be taken to effectively minimise their impact on people and the system and to prevent them in the first place.
Diabetes and heart disease – the next pandemic in developing countries?
One of the most serious Ebola epidemics is currently raging in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In mid-June, the first Ebola victim was also reported in neighbouring Uganda. The WHO had been warning for months against the spread of the epidemic to other parts of the Congo or neighbouring countries. Almost daily, a dangerous infectious disease breaks out somewhere in the world, which, if discovered too late or not detected at all, can spread rapidly across national borders and become a pandemic. In this world of growing mobility, health risks do not only cause human suffering but also high economic costs.
The current issue of Development in Brief focuses on pandemic prevention as a highly relevant issue and discusses approaches that can prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Ebola and thus reduce the economic costs of pandemics for affected countries and the international community.
Pandemics: Improving preparedness and response effectiveness(PDF, 143 KB, accessible)
The worldwide advance of what is known as antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is undermining the effectiveness of conventional medicines such as antibiotics and therapies against malaria, tuberculosis or HIV/AIDS, is posing a challenge for healthcare systems in many countries. Particularly in low-income regions, it is becoming a health problem of the first order.
This current edition of Development in Brief summarises the global challenges and dangers as well as the health and economic consequences of antimicrobial resistance, and also lists the national and international measures and precautions that need to be taken to effectively prevent it from spreading.
Antimicrobial resistance jeopardises efficiency of healthcare systems
In the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, health is the third of a total of 17 goals. This SDG focuses on equal access to quality, essential health care services and medicines, as well as financial risk protection (Universal Health Coverage – UHC). Globally, approximately one billion people do not have access or equal access to appropriate and affordable health care. Due to high individual illness costs, up to 100 million people fall below the poverty line each year. The health systems are often weak: they lack adequate infrastructure, specialists, medicines, sustainable financing and efficient management. Global developments like climate and demographic change, urbanisation, and migration present great challenges, especially for these weak health care systems. Crises and conflicts aggravate the situation. Tropical diseases that have not been dealt with continue to be a risk in many partner countries. Many non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer are also clearly on the rise. With the focus on health during the German presidencies of the G7 and G20, the core concerns of German development cooperation in the health sector were also clearly structured. Fighting infectious diseases, improving maternal and child health and strengthening health care systems serve as the foundation for Germany's involvement.
Portfolio Analysis – Health 2017(PDF, 292 KB, non-accessible)
World AIDS Day will be held for the 30th time on 1 December – the perfect time to take stock. At this point in time, there are around 37 million people around the world who have the HI Virus. Although the virus was not identified until 1983, over 35 million people have now died from HIV or AIDS, making the illness one of the most devastating pandemics of the last few decades. Nevertheless, huge progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS in recent years.
This edition of Development in Brief describes the current status of HIV/AIDS prevention, the challenges that have yet to be defeated, and the opportunities presented by the intelligent combination of a number of effective approaches to prevention.
Smart combined approach sets new course for HIV/AIDS prevention
The new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has a total of 17 goals, the third of which is health. This SDG focuses on equal access to health care services and medicines, as well as financial risk protection (Universal Health Coverage – UHC). Globally, approximately one billion people do not have access or equal access to appropriate and affordable health care. Due to high individual direct payments, up to 100 million people fall beneath the poverty line each year. The health systems are often weak: they lack adequate infrastructure, specialists, medicines, sustainable financing and efficient management. Global developments like climate and demographic change, urbanisation, and migration present great challenges, especially for these weak health care systems. Crises and conflicts aggravate the situation. In many partner countries, tropical diseases that have not been dealt with continue to be a risk, primarily for the poorest parts of the population, while non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer are on the rise. The effect of the Ebola epidemic was that health became the focus of the German G7 and G20 presidencies. The core concerns developed at that time include fighting infectious diseases, improving maternal and child health, and strengthening health care systems. This creates the basis for the German commitment to the global Gavi Vaccination Alliance, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development's special project, "Health in Africa", which focuses on training, equipment and education, and the extension of the "Rights-based Family Planning and Maternal Health" initiative.
Portfolio Analysis – Health 2016(PDF, 60 KB, non-accessible)
Mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, dementia or alcohol abuse are more widespread in poor than in industrialised countries, as sustained poverty or traumatic experiences are central triggers for them. The extent of mental diseases and the associated adverse effects on the people affected, but also on the economies of poorer countries as a whole, are often underestimated.
The current issue of Development in Brief describes the causes and the scope of the problem, addresses the specific challenges for developing countries in relation to the prevention and the treatment of mental diseases and identifies how development cooperation may contribute to improve the situation.
Mental Health: An emerging priority for development cooperation?