On the road to the EU
North Macedonia was the most economically underdeveloped of the six republics that made up former Yugoslavia. North Macedonia declared independence in 1991. Germany began cooperating with North Macedonia in 1997. At the beginning, KfW Development Bank helped restore the ailing and, in some cases, destroyed infrastructure. Cooperation now focuses on meeting the EU accession criteria, but there is still a lot of catching up to do, especially when it comes to the environment. KfW Development Bank is mainly active in the energy sector (energy efficiency and renewable energy), in municipal infrastructure (water supply and sewage disposal and district heating) and sustainable economic development (promoting MSMEs, municipal credit lines).